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Pivot a level of the (necessarily hierarchical) index labels, returning a DataFrame having a new level of column labels whose inner-most level consists of the pivoted index labels. If the index is not a MultiIndex, the output will be a Series (the analogue of stack when the columns are not a MultiIndex). The level involved will automatically get sorted.


level : int, string, or list of these, default -1 (last level)

Level(s) of index to unstack, can pass level name


unstacked : DataFrame or Series

See also

Pivot a table based on column values.
Pivot a level of the column labels (inverse operation from unstack).


>>> index = pd.MultiIndex.from_tuples([('one', 'a'), ('one', 'b'),
...                                    ('two', 'a'), ('two', 'b')])
>>> s = pd.Series(np.arange(1.0, 5.0), index=index)
>>> s
one  a   1
     b   2
two  a   3
     b   4
dtype: float64
>>> s.unstack(level=-1)
     a   b
one  1  2
two  3  4
>>> s.unstack(level=0)
   one  two
a  1   3
b  2   4
>>> df = s.unstack(level=0)
>>> df.unstack()
one  a  1.
     b  3.
two  a  2.
     b  4.