pandas.concat(objs, axis=0, join='outer', join_axes=None, ignore_index=False, keys=None, levels=None, names=None, verify_integrity=False, copy=True)[source]

Concatenate pandas objects along a particular axis with optional set logic along the other axes. Can also add a layer of hierarchical indexing on the concatenation axis, which may be useful if the labels are the same (or overlapping) on the passed axis number


objs : a sequence or mapping of Series, DataFrame, or Panel objects

If a dict is passed, the sorted keys will be used as the keys argument, unless it is passed, in which case the values will be selected (see below). Any None objects will be dropped silently unless they are all None in which case a ValueError will be raised

axis : {0/’index’, 1/’columns’}, default 0

The axis to concatenate along

join : {‘inner’, ‘outer’}, default ‘outer’

How to handle indexes on other axis(es)

join_axes : list of Index objects

Specific indexes to use for the other n - 1 axes instead of performing inner/outer set logic

ignore_index : boolean, default False

If True, do not use the index values along the concatenation axis. The resulting axis will be labeled 0, ..., n - 1. This is useful if you are concatenating objects where the concatenation axis does not have meaningful indexing information. Note the index values on the other axes are still respected in the join.

keys : sequence, default None

If multiple levels passed, should contain tuples. Construct hierarchical index using the passed keys as the outermost level

levels : list of sequences, default None

Specific levels (unique values) to use for constructing a MultiIndex. Otherwise they will be inferred from the keys

names : list, default None

Names for the levels in the resulting hierarchical index

verify_integrity : boolean, default False

Check whether the new concatenated axis contains duplicates. This can be very expensive relative to the actual data concatenation

copy : boolean, default True

If False, do not copy data unnecessarily


concatenated : type of objects


The keys, levels, and names arguments are all optional

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