Styler.background_gradient(self, cmap='PuBu', low=0, high=0, axis=0, subset=None, text_color_threshold=0.408)[source]

Color the background in a gradient according to the data in each column (optionally row).

Requires matplotlib.

cmap : str or colormap

matplotlib colormap

low, high : float

compress the range by these values.

axis : {0 or ‘index’, 1 or ‘columns’, None}, default 0

apply to each column (axis=0 or 'index'), to each row (axis=1 or 'columns'), or to the entire DataFrame at once with axis=None.

subset : IndexSlice

a valid slice for data to limit the style application to.

text_color_threshold : float or int

luminance threshold for determining text color. Facilitates text visibility across varying background colors. From 0 to 1. 0 = all text is dark colored, 1 = all text is light colored.

New in version 0.24.0.

self : Styler

If text_color_threshold is not a value from 0 to 1.


Set text_color_threshold or tune low and high to keep the text legible by not using the entire range of the color map. The range of the data is extended by low * (x.max() - x.min()) and high * (x.max() - x.min()) before normalizing.

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