DataFrame.to_csv(path_or_buf=None, sep=',', na_rep='', float_format=None, columns=None, header=True, index=True, index_label=None, mode='w', encoding=None, compression='infer', quoting=None, quotechar='"', line_terminator=None, chunksize=None, date_format=None, doublequote=True, escapechar=None, decimal='.', errors='strict', storage_options=None)[source]

Write object to a comma-separated values (csv) file.

path_or_bufstr, path object, file-like object, or None, default None

String, path object (implementing os.PathLike[str]), or file-like object implementing a write() function. If None, the result is returned as a string. If a non-binary file object is passed, it should be opened with newline=’’, disabling universal newlines. If a binary file object is passed, mode might need to contain a ‘b’.

Changed in version 1.2.0: Support for binary file objects was introduced.

sepstr, default ‘,’

String of length 1. Field delimiter for the output file.

na_repstr, default ‘’

Missing data representation.

float_formatstr, default None

Format string for floating point numbers.

columnssequence, optional

Columns to write.

headerbool or list of str, default True

Write out the column names. If a list of strings is given it is assumed to be aliases for the column names.

indexbool, default True

Write row names (index).

index_labelstr or sequence, or False, default None

Column label for index column(s) if desired. If None is given, and header and index are True, then the index names are used. A sequence should be given if the object uses MultiIndex. If False do not print fields for index names. Use index_label=False for easier importing in R.


Python write mode, default ‘w’.

encodingstr, optional

A string representing the encoding to use in the output file, defaults to ‘utf-8’. encoding is not supported if path_or_buf is a non-binary file object.

compressionstr or dict, default ‘infer’

For on-the-fly compression of the output data. If ‘infer’ and ‘%s’ path-like, then detect compression from the following extensions: ‘.gz’, ‘.bz2’, ‘.zip’, ‘.xz’, or ‘.zst’ (otherwise no compression). Set to None for no compression. Can also be a dict with key 'method' set to one of {'zip', 'gzip', 'bz2', 'zstd'} and other key-value pairs are forwarded to zipfile.ZipFile, gzip.GzipFile, bz2.BZ2File, or zstandard.ZstdDecompressor, respectively. As an example, the following could be passed for faster compression and to create a reproducible gzip archive: compression={'method': 'gzip', 'compresslevel': 1, 'mtime': 1}.

Changed in version 1.0.0: May now be a dict with key ‘method’ as compression mode and other entries as additional compression options if compression mode is ‘zip’.

Changed in version 1.1.0: Passing compression options as keys in dict is supported for compression modes ‘gzip’, ‘bz2’, ‘zstd’, and ‘zip’.

Changed in version 1.2.0: Compression is supported for binary file objects.

Changed in version 1.2.0: Previous versions forwarded dict entries for ‘gzip’ to instead of gzip.GzipFile which prevented setting mtime.

quotingoptional constant from csv module

Defaults to csv.QUOTE_MINIMAL. If you have set a float_format then floats are converted to strings and thus csv.QUOTE_NONNUMERIC will treat them as non-numeric.

quotecharstr, default ‘"’

String of length 1. Character used to quote fields.

line_terminatorstr, optional

The newline character or character sequence to use in the output file. Defaults to os.linesep, which depends on the OS in which this method is called (’\n’ for linux, ‘\r\n’ for Windows, i.e.).

chunksizeint or None

Rows to write at a time.

date_formatstr, default None

Format string for datetime objects.

doublequotebool, default True

Control quoting of quotechar inside a field.

escapecharstr, default None

String of length 1. Character used to escape sep and quotechar when appropriate.

decimalstr, default ‘.’

Character recognized as decimal separator. E.g. use ‘,’ for European data.

errorsstr, default ‘strict’

Specifies how encoding and decoding errors are to be handled. See the errors argument for open() for a full list of options.

New in version 1.1.0.

storage_optionsdict, optional

Extra options that make sense for a particular storage connection, e.g. host, port, username, password, etc. For HTTP(S) URLs the key-value pairs are forwarded to urllib as header options. For other URLs (e.g. starting with “s3://”, and “gcs://”) the key-value pairs are forwarded to fsspec. Please see fsspec and urllib for more details.

New in version 1.2.0.

None or str

If path_or_buf is None, returns the resulting csv format as a string. Otherwise returns None.

See also


Load a CSV file into a DataFrame.


Write DataFrame to an Excel file.


>>> df = pd.DataFrame({'name': ['Raphael', 'Donatello'],
...                    'mask': ['red', 'purple'],
...                    'weapon': ['sai', 'bo staff']})
>>> df.to_csv(index=False)
'name,mask,weapon\nRaphael,red,sai\nDonatello,purple,bo staff\n'

Create ‘’ containing ‘out.csv’

>>> compression_opts = dict(method='zip',
...                         archive_name='out.csv')  
>>> df.to_csv('', index=False,
...           compression=compression_opts)  

To write a csv file to a new folder or nested folder you will first need to create it using either Pathlib or os:

>>> from pathlib import Path  
>>> filepath = Path('folder/subfolder/out.csv')  
>>> filepath.parent.mkdir(parents=True, exist_ok=True)  
>>> df.to_csv(filepath)  
>>> import os  
>>> os.makedirs('folder/subfolder', exist_ok=True)  
>>> df.to_csv('folder/subfolder/out.csv')