DataFrame.query(self, expr, inplace=False, **kwargs)[source]

Query the columns of a DataFrame with a boolean expression.


The query string to evaluate.

You can refer to variables in the environment by prefixing them with an ‘@’ character like @a + b.

You can refer to column names that contain spaces or operators by surrounding them in backticks. This way you can also escape names that start with a digit, or those that are a Python keyword. Basically when it is not valid Python identifier. See notes down for more details.

For example, if one of your columns is called a a and you want to sum it with b, your query should be `a a` + b.

New in version 0.25.0: Backtick quoting introduced.

New in version 1.0.0: Expanding functionality of backtick quoting for more than only spaces.


Whether the query should modify the data in place or return a modified copy.


See the documentation for eval() for complete details on the keyword arguments accepted by DataFrame.query().


DataFrame resulting from the provided query expression.

See also


Evaluate a string describing operations on DataFrame columns.


Evaluate a string describing operations on DataFrame columns.


The result of the evaluation of this expression is first passed to DataFrame.loc and if that fails because of a multidimensional key (e.g., a DataFrame) then the result will be passed to DataFrame.__getitem__().

This method uses the top-level eval() function to evaluate the passed query.

The query() method uses a slightly modified Python syntax by default. For example, the & and | (bitwise) operators have the precedence of their boolean cousins, and and or. This is syntactically valid Python, however the semantics are different.

You can change the semantics of the expression by passing the keyword argument parser='python'. This enforces the same semantics as evaluation in Python space. Likewise, you can pass engine='python' to evaluate an expression using Python itself as a backend. This is not recommended as it is inefficient compared to using numexpr as the engine.

The DataFrame.index and DataFrame.columns attributes of the DataFrame instance are placed in the query namespace by default, which allows you to treat both the index and columns of the frame as a column in the frame. The identifier index is used for the frame index; you can also use the name of the index to identify it in a query. Please note that Python keywords may not be used as identifiers.

For further details and examples see the query documentation in indexing.

Backtick quoted variables

Backtick quoted variables are parsed as literal Python code and are converted internally to a Python valid identifier. This can lead to the following problems.

During parsing a number of disallowed characters inside the backtick quoted string are replaced by strings that are allowed as a Python identifier. These characters include all operators in Python, the space character, the question mark, the exclamation mark, the dollar sign, and the euro sign. For other characters that fall outside the ASCII range (U+0001..U+007F) and those that are not further specified in PEP 3131, the query parser will raise an error. This excludes whitespace different than the space character, but also the hashtag (as it is used for comments) and the backtick itself (backtick can also not be escaped).

In a special case, quotes that make a pair around a backtick can confuse the parser. For example, `it's` > `that's` will raise an error, as it forms a quoted string ('s > `that') with a backtick inside.

See also the Python documentation about lexical analysis ( in combination with the source code in pandas.core.computation.parsing.


>>> df = pd.DataFrame({'A': range(1, 6),
...                    'B': range(10, 0, -2),
...                    'C C': range(10, 5, -1)})
>>> df
   A   B  C C
0  1  10   10
1  2   8    9
2  3   6    8
3  4   4    7
4  5   2    6
>>> df.query('A > B')
   A  B  C C
4  5  2    6

The previous expression is equivalent to

>>> df[df.A > df.B]
   A  B  C C
4  5  2    6

For columns with spaces in their name, you can use backtick quoting.

>>> df.query('B == `C C`')
   A   B  C C
0  1  10   10

The previous expression is equivalent to

>>> df[df.B == df['C C']]
   A   B  C C
0  1  10   10