class, precision=None, table_styles=None, uuid=None, caption=None, table_attributes=None, cell_ids=True, na_rep=None, uuid_len=5, decimal=None, thousands=None, escape=None, formatter=None)[source]#

Helps style a DataFrame or Series according to the data with HTML and CSS.

dataSeries or DataFrame

Data to be styled - either a Series or DataFrame.

precisionint, optional

Precision to round floats to. If not given defaults to pandas.options.styler.format.precision.

Changed in version 1.4.0.

table_styleslist-like, default None

List of {selector: (attr, value)} dicts; see Notes.

uuidstr, default None

A unique identifier to avoid CSS collisions; generated automatically.

captionstr, tuple, default None

String caption to attach to the table. Tuple only used for LaTeX dual captions.

table_attributesstr, default None

Items that show up in the opening <table> tag in addition to automatic (by default) id.

cell_idsbool, default True

If True, each cell will have an id attribute in their HTML tag. The id takes the form T_<uuid>_row<num_row>_col<num_col> where <uuid> is the unique identifier, <num_row> is the row number and <num_col> is the column number.

na_repstr, optional

Representation for missing values. If na_rep is None, no special formatting is applied, and falls back to pandas.options.styler.format.na_rep.

uuid_lenint, default 5

If uuid is not specified, the length of the uuid to randomly generate expressed in hex characters, in range [0, 32].

decimalstr, optional

Character used as decimal separator for floats, complex and integers. If not given uses pandas.options.styler.format.decimal.

Added in version 1.3.0.

thousandsstr, optional, default None

Character used as thousands separator for floats, complex and integers. If not given uses pandas.options.styler.format.thousands.

Added in version 1.3.0.

escapestr, optional

Use ‘html’ to replace the characters &, <, >, ', and " in cell display string with HTML-safe sequences.

Use ‘latex’ to replace the characters &, %, $, #, _, {, }, ~, ^, and \ in the cell display string with LaTeX-safe sequences. Use ‘latex-math’ to replace the characters the same way as in ‘latex’ mode, except for math substrings, which either are surrounded by two characters $ or start with the character \( and end with \). If not given uses pandas.options.styler.format.escape.

Added in version 1.3.0.

formatterstr, callable, dict, optional

Object to define how values are displayed. See Styler.format. If not given uses pandas.options.styler.format.formatter.

Added in version 1.4.0.

See also

Return a Styler object containing methods for building a styled HTML representation for the DataFrame.



Styler is primarily intended for use on safe input that you control. When using Styler on untrusted, user-provided input to serve HTML, you should set escape="html" to prevent security vulnerabilities. See the Jinja2 documentation on escaping HTML for more.

Most styling will be done by passing style functions into Styler.apply or Style functions should return values with strings containing CSS 'attr: value' that will be applied to the indicated cells.

If using in the Jupyter notebook, Styler has defined a _repr_html_ to automatically render itself. Otherwise call Styler.to_html to get the generated HTML.

CSS classes are attached to the generated HTML

  • Index and Column names include index_name and level<k> where k is its level in a MultiIndex

  • Index label cells include

    • row_heading

    • row<n> where n is the numeric position of the row

    • level<k> where k is the level in a MultiIndex

  • Column label cells include * col_heading * col<n> where n is the numeric position of the column * level<k> where k is the level in a MultiIndex

  • Blank cells include blank

  • Data cells include data

  • Trimmed cells include col_trim or row_trim.

Any, or all, or these classes can be renamed by using the css_class_names argument in Styler.set_table_classes, giving a value such as {“row”: “MY_ROW_CLASS”, “col_trim”: “”, “row_trim”: “”}.


>>> df = pd.DataFrame(
...     [[1.0, 2.0, 3.0], [4, 5, 6]], index=["a", "b"], columns=["A", "B", "C"]
... )
...     df, precision=2, caption="My table"
... )  

Please see: Table Visualization for more examples.



(Jinja2 jinja2.Environment)


(Jinja2 Template)


(Jinja2 Template)


(Jinja2 Template)


(Jinja2 Template)


(Jinja2 Loader)










apply(func[, axis, subset])

Apply a CSS-styling function column-wise, row-wise, or table-wise.

apply_index(func[, axis, level])

Apply a CSS-styling function to the index or column headers, level-wise.

background_gradient([cmap, low, high, axis, ...])

Color the background in a gradient style.

bar([subset, axis, color, cmap, width, ...])

Draw bar chart in the cell backgrounds.


Reset the Styler, removing any previously applied styles.


Append another Styler to combine the output into a single table.


Export the styles applied to the current Styler.

format([formatter, subset, na_rep, ...])

Format the text display value of cells.

format_index([formatter, axis, level, ...])

Format the text display value of index labels or column headers.

format_index_names([formatter, axis, level, ...])

Format the text display value of index names or column names.

from_custom_template(searchpath[, ...])

Factory function for creating a subclass of Styler.

hide([subset, axis, level, names])

Hide the entire index / column headers, or specific rows / columns from display.

highlight_between([subset, color, axis, ...])

Highlight a defined range with a style.

highlight_max([subset, color, axis, props])

Highlight the maximum with a style.

highlight_min([subset, color, axis, props])

Highlight the minimum with a style.

highlight_null([color, subset, props])

Highlight missing values with a style.

highlight_quantile([subset, color, axis, ...])

Highlight values defined by a quantile with a style.

map(func[, subset])

Apply a CSS-styling function elementwise.

map_index(func[, axis, level])

Apply a CSS-styling function to the index or column headers, elementwise.

pipe(func, *args, **kwargs)

Apply func(self, *args, **kwargs), and return the result.

relabel_index(labels[, axis, level])

Relabel the index, or column header, keys to display a set of specified values.


Set the text added to a <caption> HTML element.


Set defined CSS-properties to each <td> HTML element for the given subset.

set_sticky([axis, pixel_size, levels])

Add CSS to permanently display the index or column headers in a scrolling frame.


Set the table attributes added to the <table> HTML element.

set_table_styles([table_styles, axis, ...])

Set the table styles included within the <style> HTML element.


Set the class attribute of <td> HTML elements.

set_tooltips(ttips[, props, css_class, ...])

Set the DataFrame of strings on Styler generating :hover tooltips.


Set the uuid applied to id attributes of HTML elements.

text_gradient([cmap, low, high, axis, ...])

Color the text in a gradient style.

to_excel(excel_writer[, sheet_name, na_rep, ...])

Write Styler to an Excel sheet.

to_html([buf, table_uuid, table_attributes, ...])

Write Styler to a file, buffer or string in HTML-CSS format.

to_latex([buf, column_format, position, ...])

Write Styler to a file, buffer or string in LaTeX format.

to_string([buf, encoding, sparse_index, ...])

Write Styler to a file, buffer or string in text format.


Set the styles on the current Styler.