What’s new in 0.25.0 (July 18, 2019)#


Starting with the 0.25.x series of releases, pandas only supports Python 3.5.3 and higher. See Dropping Python 2.7 for more details.


The minimum supported Python version will be bumped to 3.6 in a future release.


Panel has been fully removed. For N-D labeled data structures, please use xarray


read_pickle() and read_msgpack() are only guaranteed backwards compatible back to pandas version 0.20.3 (GH 27082)

These are the changes in pandas 0.25.0. See Release notes for a full changelog including other versions of pandas.


GroupBy aggregation with relabeling#

pandas has added special groupby behavior, known as “named aggregation”, for naming the output columns when applying multiple aggregation functions to specific columns (GH 18366, GH 26512).

In [1]: animals = pd.DataFrame({'kind': ['cat', 'dog', 'cat', 'dog'],
   ...:                         'height': [9.1, 6.0, 9.5, 34.0],
   ...:                         'weight': [7.9, 7.5, 9.9, 198.0]})

In [2]: animals
  kind  height  weight
0  cat     9.1     7.9
1  dog     6.0     7.5
2  cat     9.5     9.9
3  dog    34.0   198.0

In [3]: animals.groupby("kind").agg(
   ...:     min_height=pd.NamedAgg(column='height', aggfunc='min'),
   ...:     max_height=pd.NamedAgg(column='height', aggfunc='max'),
   ...:     average_weight=pd.NamedAgg(column='weight', aggfunc="mean"),
   ...: )
      min_height  max_height  average_weight
cat          9.1         9.5            8.90
dog          6.0        34.0          102.75

Pass the desired columns names as the **kwargs to .agg. The values of **kwargs should be tuples where the first element is the column selection, and the second element is the aggregation function to apply. pandas provides the pandas.NamedAgg namedtuple to make it clearer what the arguments to the function are, but plain tuples are accepted as well.

In [4]: animals.groupby("kind").agg(
   ...:     min_height=('height', 'min'),
   ...:     max_height=('height', 'max'),
   ...:     average_weight=('weight', 'mean'),
   ...: )
      min_height  max_height  average_weight
cat          9.1         9.5            8.90
dog          6.0        34.0          102.75

Named aggregation is the recommended replacement for the deprecated “dict-of-dicts” approach to naming the output of column-specific aggregations (Deprecate groupby.agg() with a dictionary when renaming).

A similar approach is now available for Series groupby objects as well. Because there’s no need for column selection, the values can just be the functions to apply

In [5]: animals.groupby("kind").height.agg(
   ...:     min_height="min",
   ...:     max_height="max",
   ...: )
      min_height  max_height
cat          9.1         9.5
dog          6.0        34.0

This type of aggregation is the recommended alternative to the deprecated behavior when passing a dict to a Series groupby aggregation (Deprecate groupby.agg() with a dictionary when renaming).

See Named aggregation for more.

GroupBy aggregation with multiple lambdas#

You can now provide multiple lambda functions to a list-like aggregation in GroupBy.agg (GH 26430).

In [6]: animals.groupby('kind').height.agg([
   ...:     lambda x: x.iloc[0], lambda x: x.iloc[-1]
   ...: ])
      <lambda_0>  <lambda_1>
cat          9.1         9.5
dog          6.0        34.0

In [7]: animals.groupby('kind').agg([
   ...:     lambda x: x.iloc[0] - x.iloc[1],
   ...:     lambda x: x.iloc[0] + x.iloc[1]
   ...: ])
         height                weight           
     <lambda_0> <lambda_1> <lambda_0> <lambda_1>
cat        -0.4       18.6       -2.0       17.8
dog       -28.0       40.0     -190.5      205.5

Previously, these raised a SpecificationError.

Better repr for MultiIndex#

Printing of MultiIndex instances now shows tuples of each row and ensures that the tuple items are vertically aligned, so it’s now easier to understand the structure of the MultiIndex. (GH 13480):

The repr now looks like this:

In [8]: pd.MultiIndex.from_product([['a', 'abc'], range(500)])
MultiIndex([(  'a',   0),
            (  'a',   1),
            (  'a',   2),
            (  'a',   3),
            (  'a',   4),
            (  'a',   5),
            (  'a',   6),
            (  'a',   7),
            (  'a',   8),
            (  'a',   9),
            ('abc', 490),
            ('abc', 491),
            ('abc', 492),
            ('abc', 493),
            ('abc', 494),
            ('abc', 495),
            ('abc', 496),
            ('abc', 497),
            ('abc', 498),
            ('abc', 499)],

Previously, outputting a MultiIndex printed all the levels and codes of the MultiIndex, which was visually unappealing and made the output more difficult to navigate. For example (limiting the range to 5):

In [1]: pd.MultiIndex.from_product([['a', 'abc'], range(5)])
Out[1]: MultiIndex(levels=[['a', 'abc'], [0, 1, 2, 3]],
   ...:            codes=[[0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1], [0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 1, 2, 3]])

In the new repr, all values will be shown, if the number of rows is smaller than options.display.max_seq_items (default: 100 items). Horizontally, the output will truncate, if it’s wider than options.display.width (default: 80 characters).

Shorter truncated repr for Series and DataFrame#

Currently, the default display options of pandas ensure that when a Series or DataFrame has more than 60 rows, its repr gets truncated to this maximum of 60 rows (the display.max_rows option). However, this still gives a repr that takes up a large part of the vertical screen estate. Therefore, a new option display.min_rows is introduced with a default of 10 which determines the number of rows showed in the truncated repr:

  • For small Series or DataFrames, up to max_rows number of rows is shown (default: 60).

  • For larger Series of DataFrame with a length above max_rows, only min_rows number of rows is shown (default: 10, i.e. the first and last 5 rows).

This dual option allows to still see the full content of relatively small objects (e.g. df.head(20) shows all 20 rows), while giving a brief repr for large objects.

To restore the previous behaviour of a single threshold, set pd.options.display.min_rows = None.

JSON normalize with max_level param support#

json_normalize() normalizes the provided input dict to all nested levels. The new max_level parameter provides more control over which level to end normalization (GH 23843):

The repr now looks like this:

from pandas.io.json import json_normalize
data = [{
    'CreatedBy': {'Name': 'User001'},
    'Lookup': {'TextField': 'Some text',
               'UserField': {'Id': 'ID001', 'Name': 'Name001'}},
    'Image': {'a': 'b'}
json_normalize(data, max_level=1)

Series.explode to split list-like values to rows#

Series and DataFrame have gained the DataFrame.explode() methods to transform list-likes to individual rows. See section on Exploding list-like column in docs for more information (GH 16538, GH 10511)

Here is a typical usecase. You have comma separated string in a column.

In [9]: df = pd.DataFrame([{'var1': 'a,b,c', 'var2': 1},
   ...:                    {'var1': 'd,e,f', 'var2': 2}])

In [10]: df
    var1  var2
0  a,b,c     1
1  d,e,f     2

Creating a long form DataFrame is now straightforward using chained operations

In [11]: df.assign(var1=df.var1.str.split(',')).explode('var1')
  var1  var2
0    a     1
0    b     1
0    c     1
1    d     2
1    e     2
1    f     2

Other enhancements#

Backwards incompatible API changes#

Indexing with date strings with UTC offsets#

Indexing a DataFrame or Series with a DatetimeIndex with a date string with a UTC offset would previously ignore the UTC offset. Now, the UTC offset is respected in indexing. (GH 24076, GH 16785)

In [12]: df = pd.DataFrame([0], index=pd.DatetimeIndex(['2019-01-01'], tz='US/Pacific'))

In [13]: df
2019-01-01 00:00:00-08:00  0

Previous behavior:

In [3]: df['2019-01-01 00:00:00+04:00':'2019-01-01 01:00:00+04:00']
2019-01-01 00:00:00-08:00  0

New behavior:

In [14]: df['2019-01-01 12:00:00+04:00':'2019-01-01 13:00:00+04:00']
2019-01-01 00:00:00-08:00  0

MultiIndex constructed from levels and codes#

Constructing a MultiIndex with NaN levels or codes value < -1 was allowed previously. Now, construction with codes value < -1 is not allowed and NaN levels’ corresponding codes would be reassigned as -1. (GH 19387)

Previous behavior:

In [1]: pd.MultiIndex(levels=[[np.nan, None, pd.NaT, 128, 2]],
   ...:               codes=[[0, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4]])
Out[1]: MultiIndex(levels=[[nan, None, NaT, 128, 2]],
                   codes=[[0, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4]])

In [2]: pd.MultiIndex(levels=[[1, 2]], codes=[[0, -2]])
Out[2]: MultiIndex(levels=[[1, 2]],
                   codes=[[0, -2]])

New behavior:

In [15]: pd.MultiIndex(levels=[[np.nan, None, pd.NaT, 128, 2]],
   ....:               codes=[[0, -1, 1, 2, 3, 4]])
            (  2,)],

In [16]: pd.MultiIndex(levels=[[1, 2]], codes=[[0, -2]])
ValueError                                Traceback (most recent call last)
Cell In[16], line 1
----> 1 pd.MultiIndex(levels=[[1, 2]], codes=[[0, -2]])

File ~/work/pandas/pandas/pandas/core/indexes/multi.py:338, in MultiIndex.__new__(cls, levels, codes, sortorder, names, dtype, copy, name, verify_integrity)
    335     result.sortorder = sortorder
    337 if verify_integrity:
--> 338     new_codes = result._verify_integrity()
    339     result._codes = new_codes
    341 result._reset_identity()

File ~/work/pandas/pandas/pandas/core/indexes/multi.py:422, in MultiIndex._verify_integrity(self, codes, levels, levels_to_verify)
    416     raise ValueError(
    417         f"On level {i}, code max ({level_codes.max()}) >= length of "
    418         f"level ({len(level)}). NOTE: this index is in an "
    419         "inconsistent state"
    420     )
    421 if len(level_codes) and level_codes.min() < -1:
--> 422     raise ValueError(f"On level {i}, code value ({level_codes.min()}) < -1")
    423 if not level.is_unique:
    424     raise ValueError(
    425         f"Level values must be unique: {list(level)} on level {i}"
    426     )

ValueError: On level 0, code value (-2) < -1

GroupBy.apply on DataFrame evaluates first group only once#

The implementation of DataFrameGroupBy.apply() previously evaluated the supplied function consistently twice on the first group to infer if it is safe to use a fast code path. Particularly for functions with side effects, this was an undesired behavior and may have led to surprises. (GH 2936, GH 2656, GH 7739, GH 10519, GH 12155, GH 20084, GH 21417)

Now every group is evaluated only a single time.

In [17]: df = pd.DataFrame({"a": ["x", "y"], "b": [1, 2]})

In [18]: df
   a  b
0  x  1
1  y  2

In [19]: def func(group):
   ....:     print(group.name)
   ....:     return group

Previous behavior:

In [3]: df.groupby('a').apply(func)
   a  b
0  x  1
1  y  2

New behavior:

In [3]: df.groupby('a').apply(func)
   a  b
0  x  1
1  y  2

Concatenating sparse values#

When passed DataFrames whose values are sparse, concat() will now return a Series or DataFrame with sparse values, rather than a SparseDataFrame (GH 25702).

In [20]: df = pd.DataFrame({"A": pd.arrays.SparseArray([0, 1])})

Previous behavior:

In [2]: type(pd.concat([df, df]))

New behavior:

In [21]: type(pd.concat([df, df]))
Out[21]: pandas.DataFrame

This now matches the existing behavior of concat on Series with sparse values. concat() will continue to return a SparseDataFrame when all the values are instances of SparseDataFrame.

This change also affects routines using concat() internally, like get_dummies(), which now returns a DataFrame in all cases (previously a SparseDataFrame was returned if all the columns were dummy encoded, and a DataFrame otherwise).

Providing any SparseSeries or SparseDataFrame to concat() will cause a SparseSeries or SparseDataFrame to be returned, as before.

The .str-accessor performs stricter type checks#

Due to the lack of more fine-grained dtypes, Series.str so far only checked whether the data was of object dtype. Series.str will now infer the dtype data within the Series; in particular, 'bytes'-only data will raise an exception (except for Series.str.decode(), Series.str.get(), Series.str.len(), Series.str.slice()), see GH 23163, GH 23011, GH 23551.

Previous behavior:

In [1]: s = pd.Series(np.array(['a', 'ba', 'cba'], 'S'), dtype=object)

In [2]: s
0      b'a'
1     b'ba'
2    b'cba'
dtype: object

In [3]: s.str.startswith(b'a')
0     True
1    False
2    False
dtype: bool

New behavior:

In [22]: s = pd.Series(np.array(['a', 'ba', 'cba'], 'S'), dtype=object)

In [23]: s
0      b'a'
1     b'ba'
2    b'cba'
dtype: object

In [24]: s.str.startswith(b'a')
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)
Cell In[24], line 1
----> 1 s.str.startswith(b'a')

File ~/work/pandas/pandas/pandas/core/strings/accessor.py:136, in forbid_nonstring_types.<locals>._forbid_nonstring_types.<locals>.wrapper(self, *args, **kwargs)
    131 if self._inferred_dtype not in allowed_types:
    132     msg = (
    133         f"Cannot use .str.{func_name} with values of "
    134         f"inferred dtype '{self._inferred_dtype}'."
    135     )
--> 136     raise TypeError(msg)
    137 return func(self, *args, **kwargs)

TypeError: Cannot use .str.startswith with values of inferred dtype 'bytes'.

Categorical dtypes are preserved during GroupBy#

Previously, columns that were categorical, but not the groupby key(s) would be converted to object dtype during groupby operations. pandas now will preserve these dtypes. (GH 18502)

In [25]: cat = pd.Categorical(["foo", "bar", "bar", "qux"], ordered=True)

In [26]: df = pd.DataFrame({'payload': [-1, -2, -1, -2], 'col': cat})

In [27]: df
   payload  col
0       -1  foo
1       -2  bar
2       -1  bar
3       -2  qux

In [28]: df.dtypes
payload       int64
col        category
dtype: object

Previous Behavior:

In [5]: df.groupby('payload').first().col.dtype
Out[5]: dtype('O')

New Behavior:

In [29]: df.groupby('payload').first().col.dtype
Out[29]: CategoricalDtype(categories=['bar', 'foo', 'qux'], ordered=True, categories_dtype=object)

Incompatible Index type unions#

When performing Index.union() operations between objects of incompatible dtypes, the result will be a base Index of dtype object. This behavior holds true for unions between Index objects that previously would have been prohibited. The dtype of empty Index objects will now be evaluated before performing union operations rather than simply returning the other Index object. Index.union() can now be considered commutative, such that A.union(B) == B.union(A) (GH 23525).

Previous behavior:

In [1]: pd.period_range('19910905', periods=2).union(pd.Int64Index([1, 2, 3]))
ValueError: can only call with other PeriodIndex-ed objects

In [2]: pd.Index([], dtype=object).union(pd.Index([1, 2, 3]))
Out[2]: Int64Index([1, 2, 3], dtype='int64')

New behavior:

In [3]: pd.period_range('19910905', periods=2).union(pd.Int64Index([1, 2, 3]))
Out[3]: Index([1991-09-05, 1991-09-06, 1, 2, 3], dtype='object')
In [4]: pd.Index([], dtype=object).union(pd.Index([1, 2, 3]))
Out[4]: Index([1, 2, 3], dtype='object')

Note that integer- and floating-dtype indexes are considered “compatible”. The integer values are coerced to floating point, which may result in loss of precision. See Set operations on Index objects for more.

DataFrame GroupBy ffill/bfill no longer return group labels#

The methods ffill, bfill, pad and backfill of DataFrameGroupBy previously included the group labels in the return value, which was inconsistent with other groupby transforms. Now only the filled values are returned. (GH 21521)

In [30]: df = pd.DataFrame({"a": ["x", "y"], "b": [1, 2]})

In [31]: df
   a  b
0  x  1
1  y  2

Previous behavior:

In [3]: df.groupby("a").ffill()
   a  b
0  x  1
1  y  2

New behavior:

In [32]: df.groupby("a").ffill()
0  1
1  2

DataFrame describe on an empty Categorical / object column will return top and freq#

When calling DataFrame.describe() with an empty categorical / object column, the ‘top’ and ‘freq’ columns were previously omitted, which was inconsistent with the output for non-empty columns. Now the ‘top’ and ‘freq’ columns will always be included, with numpy.nan in the case of an empty DataFrame (GH 26397)

In [33]: df = pd.DataFrame({"empty_col": pd.Categorical([])})

In [34]: df
Empty DataFrame
Columns: [empty_col]
Index: []

Previous behavior:

In [3]: df.describe()
count           0
unique          0

New behavior:

In [35]: df.describe()
count          0
unique         0
top          NaN
freq         NaN

__str__ methods now call __repr__ rather than vice versa#

pandas has until now mostly defined string representations in a pandas objects’ __str__/__unicode__/__bytes__ methods, and called __str__ from the __repr__ method, if a specific __repr__ method is not found. This is not needed for Python3. In pandas 0.25, the string representations of pandas objects are now generally defined in __repr__, and calls to __str__ in general now pass the call on to the __repr__, if a specific __str__ method doesn’t exist, as is standard for Python. This change is backward compatible for direct usage of pandas, but if you subclass pandas objects and give your subclasses specific __str__/__repr__ methods, you may have to adjust your __str__/__repr__ methods (GH 26495).

Indexing an IntervalIndex with Interval objects#

Indexing methods for IntervalIndex have been modified to require exact matches only for Interval queries. IntervalIndex methods previously matched on any overlapping Interval. Behavior with scalar points, e.g. querying with an integer, is unchanged (GH 16316).

In [36]: ii = pd.IntervalIndex.from_tuples([(0, 4), (1, 5), (5, 8)])

In [37]: ii
Out[37]: IntervalIndex([(0, 4], (1, 5], (5, 8]], dtype='interval[int64, right]')

The in operator (__contains__) now only returns True for exact matches to Intervals in the IntervalIndex, whereas this would previously return True for any Interval overlapping an Interval in the IntervalIndex.

Previous behavior:

In [4]: pd.Interval(1, 2, closed='neither') in ii
Out[4]: True

In [5]: pd.Interval(-10, 10, closed='both') in ii
Out[5]: True

New behavior:

In [38]: pd.Interval(1, 2, closed='neither') in ii
Out[38]: False

In [39]: pd.Interval(-10, 10, closed='both') in ii
Out[39]: False

The get_loc() method now only returns locations for exact matches to Interval queries, as opposed to the previous behavior of returning locations for overlapping matches. A KeyError will be raised if an exact match is not found.

Previous behavior:

In [6]: ii.get_loc(pd.Interval(1, 5))
Out[6]: array([0, 1])

In [7]: ii.get_loc(pd.Interval(2, 6))
Out[7]: array([0, 1, 2])

New behavior:

In [6]: ii.get_loc(pd.Interval(1, 5))
Out[6]: 1

In [7]: ii.get_loc(pd.Interval(2, 6))
KeyError: Interval(2, 6, closed='right')

Likewise, get_indexer() and get_indexer_non_unique() will also only return locations for exact matches to Interval queries, with -1 denoting that an exact match was not found.

These indexing changes extend to querying a Series or DataFrame with an IntervalIndex index.

In [40]: s = pd.Series(list('abc'), index=ii)

In [41]: s
(0, 4]    a
(1, 5]    b
(5, 8]    c
dtype: object

Selecting from a Series or DataFrame using [] (__getitem__) or loc now only returns exact matches for Interval queries.

Previous behavior:

In [8]: s[pd.Interval(1, 5)]
(0, 4]    a
(1, 5]    b
dtype: object

In [9]: s.loc[pd.Interval(1, 5)]
(0, 4]    a
(1, 5]    b
dtype: object

New behavior:

In [42]: s[pd.Interval(1, 5)]
Out[42]: 'b'

In [43]: s.loc[pd.Interval(1, 5)]
Out[43]: 'b'

Similarly, a KeyError will be raised for non-exact matches instead of returning overlapping matches.

Previous behavior:

In [9]: s[pd.Interval(2, 3)]
(0, 4]    a
(1, 5]    b
dtype: object

In [10]: s.loc[pd.Interval(2, 3)]
(0, 4]    a
(1, 5]    b
dtype: object

New behavior:

In [6]: s[pd.Interval(2, 3)]
KeyError: Interval(2, 3, closed='right')

In [7]: s.loc[pd.Interval(2, 3)]
KeyError: Interval(2, 3, closed='right')

The overlaps() method can be used to create a boolean indexer that replicates the previous behavior of returning overlapping matches.

New behavior:

In [44]: idxr = s.index.overlaps(pd.Interval(2, 3))

In [45]: idxr
Out[45]: array([ True,  True, False])

In [46]: s[idxr]
(0, 4]    a
(1, 5]    b
dtype: object

In [47]: s.loc[idxr]
(0, 4]    a
(1, 5]    b
dtype: object

Binary ufuncs on Series now align#

Applying a binary ufunc like numpy.power() now aligns the inputs when both are Series (GH 23293).

In [48]: s1 = pd.Series([1, 2, 3], index=['a', 'b', 'c'])

In [49]: s2 = pd.Series([3, 4, 5], index=['d', 'c', 'b'])

In [50]: s1
a    1
b    2
c    3
dtype: int64

In [51]: s2
d    3
c    4
b    5
dtype: int64

Previous behavior

In [5]: np.power(s1, s2)
a      1
b     16
c    243
dtype: int64

New behavior

In [52]: np.power(s1, s2)
a     1.0
b    32.0
c    81.0
d     NaN
dtype: float64

This matches the behavior of other binary operations in pandas, like Series.add(). To retain the previous behavior, convert the other Series to an array before applying the ufunc.

In [53]: np.power(s1, s2.array)
a      1
b     16
c    243
dtype: int64

Categorical.argsort now places missing values at the end#

Categorical.argsort() now places missing values at the end of the array, making it consistent with NumPy and the rest of pandas (GH 21801).

In [54]: cat = pd.Categorical(['b', None, 'a'], categories=['a', 'b'], ordered=True)

Previous behavior

In [2]: cat = pd.Categorical(['b', None, 'a'], categories=['a', 'b'], ordered=True)

In [3]: cat.argsort()
Out[3]: array([1, 2, 0])

In [4]: cat[cat.argsort()]
[NaN, a, b]
categories (2, object): [a < b]

New behavior

In [55]: cat.argsort()
Out[55]: array([2, 0, 1])

In [56]: cat[cat.argsort()]
['a', 'b', NaN]
Categories (2, object): ['a' < 'b']

Column order is preserved when passing a list of dicts to DataFrame#

Starting with Python 3.7 the key-order of dict is guaranteed. In practice, this has been true since Python 3.6. The DataFrame constructor now treats a list of dicts in the same way as it does a list of OrderedDict, i.e. preserving the order of the dicts. This change applies only when pandas is running on Python>=3.6 (GH 27309).

In [57]: data = [
   ....:     {'name': 'Joe', 'state': 'NY', 'age': 18},
   ....:     {'name': 'Jane', 'state': 'KY', 'age': 19, 'hobby': 'Minecraft'},
   ....:     {'name': 'Jean', 'state': 'OK', 'age': 20, 'finances': 'good'}
   ....: ]

Previous Behavior:

The columns were lexicographically sorted previously,

In [1]: pd.DataFrame(data)
   age finances      hobby  name state
0   18      NaN        NaN   Joe    NY
1   19      NaN  Minecraft  Jane    KY
2   20     good        NaN  Jean    OK

New Behavior:

The column order now matches the insertion-order of the keys in the dict, considering all the records from top to bottom. As a consequence, the column order of the resulting DataFrame has changed compared to previous pandas versions.

In [58]: pd.DataFrame(data)
   name state  age      hobby finances
0   Joe    NY   18        NaN      NaN
1  Jane    KY   19  Minecraft      NaN
2  Jean    OK   20        NaN     good

Increased minimum versions for dependencies#

Due to dropping support for Python 2.7, a number of optional dependencies have updated minimum versions (GH 25725, GH 24942, GH 25752). Independently, some minimum supported versions of dependencies were updated (GH 23519, GH 25554). If installed, we now require:


Minimum Version















pytest (dev)


For optional libraries the general recommendation is to use the latest version. The following table lists the lowest version per library that is currently being tested throughout the development of pandas. Optional libraries below the lowest tested version may still work, but are not considered supported.


Minimum Version































See Dependencies and Optional dependencies for more.

Other API changes#


Sparse subclasses#

The SparseSeries and SparseDataFrame subclasses are deprecated. Their functionality is better-provided by a Series or DataFrame with sparse values.

Previous way

df = pd.SparseDataFrame({"A": [0, 0, 1, 2]})

New way

In [59]: df = pd.DataFrame({"A": pd.arrays.SparseArray([0, 0, 1, 2])})

In [60]: df.dtypes
A    Sparse[int64, 0]
dtype: object

The memory usage of the two approaches is identical (GH 19239).

msgpack format#

The msgpack format is deprecated as of 0.25 and will be removed in a future version. It is recommended to use pyarrow for on-the-wire transmission of pandas objects. (GH 27084)

Other deprecations#

Removal of prior version deprecations/changes#

Performance improvements#

  • Significant speedup in SparseArray initialization that benefits most operations, fixing performance regression introduced in v0.20.0 (GH 24985)

  • DataFrame.to_stata() is now faster when outputting data with any string or non-native endian columns (GH 25045)

  • Improved performance of Series.searchsorted(). The speedup is especially large when the dtype is int8/int16/int32 and the searched key is within the integer bounds for the dtype (GH 22034)

  • Improved performance of GroupBy.quantile() (GH 20405)

  • Improved performance of slicing and other selected operation on a RangeIndex (GH 26565, GH 26617, GH 26722)

  • RangeIndex now performs standard lookup without instantiating an actual hashtable, hence saving memory (GH 16685)

  • Improved performance of read_csv() by faster tokenizing and faster parsing of small float numbers (GH 25784)

  • Improved performance of read_csv() by faster parsing of N/A and boolean values (GH 25804)

  • Improved performance of IntervalIndex.is_monotonic, IntervalIndex.is_monotonic_increasing and IntervalIndex.is_monotonic_decreasing by removing conversion to MultiIndex (GH 24813)

  • Improved performance of DataFrame.to_csv() when writing datetime dtypes (GH 25708)

  • Improved performance of read_csv() by much faster parsing of MM/YYYY and DD/MM/YYYY datetime formats (GH 25922)

  • Improved performance of nanops for dtypes that cannot store NaNs. Speedup is particularly prominent for Series.all() and Series.any() (GH 25070)

  • Improved performance of Series.map() for dictionary mappers on categorical series by mapping the categories instead of mapping all values (GH 23785)

  • Improved performance of IntervalIndex.intersection() (GH 24813)

  • Improved performance of read_csv() by faster concatenating date columns without extra conversion to string for integer/float zero and float NaN; by faster checking the string for the possibility of being a date (GH 25754)

  • Improved performance of IntervalIndex.is_unique by removing conversion to MultiIndex (GH 24813)

  • Restored performance of DatetimeIndex.__iter__() by re-enabling specialized code path (GH 26702)

  • Improved performance when building MultiIndex with at least one CategoricalIndex level (GH 22044)

  • Improved performance by removing the need for a garbage collect when checking for SettingWithCopyWarning (GH 27031)

  • For to_datetime() changed default value of cache parameter to True (GH 26043)

  • Improved performance of DatetimeIndex and PeriodIndex slicing given non-unique, monotonic data (GH 27136).

  • Improved performance of pd.read_json() for index-oriented data. (GH 26773)

  • Improved performance of MultiIndex.shape() (GH 27384).

Bug fixes#



  • Bug in to_datetime() which would raise an (incorrect) ValueError when called with a date far into the future and the format argument specified instead of raising OutOfBoundsDatetime (GH 23830)

  • Bug in to_datetime() which would raise InvalidIndexError: Reindexing only valid with uniquely valued Index objects when called with cache=True, with arg including at least two different elements from the set {None, numpy.nan, pandas.NaT} (GH 22305)

  • Bug in DataFrame and Series where timezone aware data with dtype='datetime64[ns] was not cast to naive (GH 25843)

  • Improved Timestamp type checking in various datetime functions to prevent exceptions when using a subclassed datetime (GH 25851)

  • Bug in Series and DataFrame repr where np.datetime64('NaT') and np.timedelta64('NaT') with dtype=object would be represented as NaN (GH 25445)

  • Bug in to_datetime() which does not replace the invalid argument with NaT when error is set to coerce (GH 26122)

  • Bug in adding DateOffset with nonzero month to DatetimeIndex would raise ValueError (GH 26258)

  • Bug in to_datetime() which raises unhandled OverflowError when called with mix of invalid dates and NaN values with format='%Y%m%d' and error='coerce' (GH 25512)

  • Bug in isin() for datetimelike indexes; DatetimeIndex, TimedeltaIndex and PeriodIndex where the levels parameter was ignored. (GH 26675)

  • Bug in to_datetime() which raises TypeError for format='%Y%m%d' when called for invalid integer dates with length >= 6 digits with errors='ignore'

  • Bug when comparing a PeriodIndex against a zero-dimensional numpy array (GH 26689)

  • Bug in constructing a Series or DataFrame from a numpy datetime64 array with a non-ns unit and out-of-bound timestamps generating rubbish data, which will now correctly raise an OutOfBoundsDatetime error (GH 26206).

  • Bug in date_range() with unnecessary OverflowError being raised for very large or very small dates (GH 26651)

  • Bug where adding Timestamp to a np.timedelta64 object would raise instead of returning a Timestamp (GH 24775)

  • Bug where comparing a zero-dimensional numpy array containing a np.datetime64 object to a Timestamp would incorrect raise TypeError (GH 26916)

  • Bug in to_datetime() which would raise ValueError: Tz-aware datetime.datetime cannot be converted to datetime64 unless utc=True when called with cache=True, with arg including datetime strings with different offset (GH 26097)


  • Bug in TimedeltaIndex.intersection() where for non-monotonic indices in some cases an empty Index was returned when in fact an intersection existed (GH 25913)

  • Bug with comparisons between Timedelta and NaT raising TypeError (GH 26039)

  • Bug when adding or subtracting a BusinessHour to a Timestamp with the resulting time landing in a following or prior day respectively (GH 26381)

  • Bug when comparing a TimedeltaIndex against a zero-dimensional numpy array (GH 26689)



  • Bug in to_numeric() in which large negative numbers were being improperly handled (GH 24910)

  • Bug in to_numeric() in which numbers were being coerced to float, even though errors was not coerce (GH 24910)

  • Bug in to_numeric() in which invalid values for errors were being allowed (GH 26466)

  • Bug in format in which floating point complex numbers were not being formatted to proper display precision and trimming (GH 25514)

  • Bug in error messages in DataFrame.corr() and Series.corr(). Added the possibility of using a callable. (GH 25729)

  • Bug in Series.divmod() and Series.rdivmod() which would raise an (incorrect) ValueError rather than return a pair of Series objects as result (GH 25557)

  • Raises a helpful exception when a non-numeric index is sent to interpolate() with methods which require numeric index. (GH 21662)

  • Bug in eval() when comparing floats with scalar operators, for example: x < -0.1 (GH 25928)

  • Fixed bug where casting all-boolean array to integer extension array failed (GH 25211)

  • Bug in divmod with a Series object containing zeros incorrectly raising AttributeError (GH 26987)

  • Inconsistency in Series floor-division (//) and divmod filling positive//zero with NaN instead of Inf (GH 27321)





  • Improved exception message when calling DataFrame.iloc() with a list of non-numeric objects (GH 25753).

  • Improved exception message when calling .iloc or .loc with a boolean indexer with different length (GH 26658).

  • Bug in KeyError exception message when indexing a MultiIndex with a non-existent key not displaying the original key (GH 27250).

  • Bug in .iloc and .loc with a boolean indexer not raising an IndexError when too few items are passed (GH 26658).

  • Bug in DataFrame.loc() and Series.loc() where KeyError was not raised for a MultiIndex when the key was less than or equal to the number of levels in the MultiIndex (GH 14885).

  • Bug in which DataFrame.append() produced an erroneous warning indicating that a KeyError will be thrown in the future when the data to be appended contains new columns (GH 22252).

  • Bug in which DataFrame.to_csv() caused a segfault for a reindexed data frame, when the indices were single-level MultiIndex (GH 26303).

  • Fixed bug where assigning a arrays.PandasArray to a DataFrame would raise error (GH 26390)

  • Allow keyword arguments for callable local reference used in the DataFrame.query() string (GH 26426)

  • Fixed a KeyError when indexing a MultiIndex level with a list containing exactly one label, which is missing (GH 27148)

  • Bug which produced AttributeError on partial matching Timestamp in a MultiIndex (GH 26944)

  • Bug in Categorical and CategoricalIndex with Interval values when using the in operator (__contains) with objects that are not comparable to the values in the Interval (GH 23705)

  • Bug in DataFrame.loc() and DataFrame.iloc() on a DataFrame with a single timezone-aware datetime64[ns] column incorrectly returning a scalar instead of a Series (GH 27110)

  • Bug in CategoricalIndex and Categorical incorrectly raising ValueError instead of TypeError when a list is passed using the in operator (__contains__) (GH 21729)

  • Bug in setting a new value in a Series with a Timedelta object incorrectly casting the value to an integer (GH 22717)

  • Bug in Series setting a new key (__setitem__) with a timezone-aware datetime incorrectly raising ValueError (GH 12862)

  • Bug in DataFrame.iloc() when indexing with a read-only indexer (GH 17192)

  • Bug in Series setting an existing tuple key (__setitem__) with timezone-aware datetime values incorrectly raising TypeError (GH 20441)




  • Bug in DataFrame.to_html() where values were truncated using display options instead of outputting the full content (GH 17004)

  • Fixed bug in missing text when using to_clipboard() if copying utf-16 characters in Python 3 on Windows (GH 25040)

  • Bug in read_json() for orient='table' when it tries to infer dtypes by default, which is not applicable as dtypes are already defined in the JSON schema (GH 21345)

  • Bug in read_json() for orient='table' and float index, as it infers index dtype by default, which is not applicable because index dtype is already defined in the JSON schema (GH 25433)

  • Bug in read_json() for orient='table' and string of float column names, as it makes a column name type conversion to Timestamp, which is not applicable because column names are already defined in the JSON schema (GH 25435)

  • Bug in json_normalize() for errors='ignore' where missing values in the input data, were filled in resulting DataFrame with the string "nan" instead of numpy.nan (GH 25468)

  • DataFrame.to_html() now raises TypeError when using an invalid type for the classes parameter instead of AssertionError (GH 25608)

  • Bug in DataFrame.to_string() and DataFrame.to_latex() that would lead to incorrect output when the header keyword is used (GH 16718)

  • Bug in read_csv() not properly interpreting the UTF8 encoded filenames on Windows on Python 3.6+ (GH 15086)

  • Improved performance in pandas.read_stata() and pandas.io.stata.StataReader when converting columns that have missing values (GH 25772)

  • Bug in DataFrame.to_html() where header numbers would ignore display options when rounding (GH 17280)

  • Bug in read_hdf() where reading a table from an HDF5 file written directly with PyTables fails with a ValueError when using a sub-selection via the start or stop arguments (GH 11188)

  • Bug in read_hdf() not properly closing store after a KeyError is raised (GH 25766)

  • Improved the explanation for the failure when value labels are repeated in Stata dta files and suggested work-arounds (GH 25772)

  • Improved pandas.read_stata() and pandas.io.stata.StataReader to read incorrectly formatted 118 format files saved by Stata (GH 25960)

  • Improved the col_space parameter in DataFrame.to_html() to accept a string so CSS length values can be set correctly (GH 25941)

  • Fixed bug in loading objects from S3 that contain # characters in the URL (GH 25945)

  • Adds use_bqstorage_api parameter to read_gbq() to speed up downloads of large data frames. This feature requires version 0.10.0 of the pandas-gbq library as well as the google-cloud-bigquery-storage and fastavro libraries. (GH 26104)

  • Fixed memory leak in DataFrame.to_json() when dealing with numeric data (GH 24889)

  • Bug in read_json() where date strings with Z were not converted to a UTC timezone (GH 26168)

  • Added cache_dates=True parameter to read_csv(), which allows to cache unique dates when they are parsed (GH 25990)

  • DataFrame.to_excel() now raises a ValueError when the caller’s dimensions exceed the limitations of Excel (GH 26051)

  • Fixed bug in pandas.read_csv() where a BOM would result in incorrect parsing using engine=’python’ (GH 26545)

  • read_excel() now raises a ValueError when input is of type pandas.io.excel.ExcelFile and engine param is passed since pandas.io.excel.ExcelFile has an engine defined (GH 26566)

  • Bug while selecting from HDFStore with where='' specified (GH 26610).

  • Fixed bug in DataFrame.to_excel() where custom objects (i.e. PeriodIndex) inside merged cells were not being converted into types safe for the Excel writer (GH 27006)

  • Bug in read_hdf() where reading a timezone aware DatetimeIndex would raise a TypeError (GH 11926)

  • Bug in to_msgpack() and read_msgpack() which would raise a ValueError rather than a FileNotFoundError for an invalid path (GH 27160)

  • Fixed bug in DataFrame.to_parquet() which would raise a ValueError when the dataframe had no columns (GH 27339)

  • Allow parsing of PeriodDtype columns when using read_csv() (GH 26934)



  • Bug in Resampler.agg() with a timezone aware index where OverflowError would raise when passing a list of functions (GH 22660)

  • Bug in DataFrameGroupBy.nunique() in which the names of column levels were lost (GH 23222)

  • Bug in GroupBy.agg() when applying an aggregation function to timezone aware data (GH 23683)

  • Bug in GroupBy.first() and GroupBy.last() where timezone information would be dropped (GH 21603)

  • Bug in GroupBy.size() when grouping only NA values (GH 23050)

  • Bug in Series.groupby() where observed kwarg was previously ignored (GH 24880)

  • Bug in Series.groupby() where using groupby with a MultiIndex Series with a list of labels equal to the length of the series caused incorrect grouping (GH 25704)

  • Ensured that ordering of outputs in groupby aggregation functions is consistent across all versions of Python (GH 25692)

  • Ensured that result group order is correct when grouping on an ordered Categorical and specifying observed=True (GH 25871, GH 25167)

  • Bug in Rolling.min() and Rolling.max() that caused a memory leak (GH 25893)

  • Bug in Rolling.count() and .Expanding.count was previously ignoring the axis keyword (GH 13503)

  • Bug in GroupBy.idxmax() and GroupBy.idxmin() with datetime column would return incorrect dtype (GH 25444, GH 15306)

  • Bug in GroupBy.cumsum(), GroupBy.cumprod(), GroupBy.cummin() and GroupBy.cummax() with categorical column having absent categories, would return incorrect result or segfault (GH 16771)

  • Bug in GroupBy.nth() where NA values in the grouping would return incorrect results (GH 26011)

  • Bug in SeriesGroupBy.transform() where transforming an empty group would raise a ValueError (GH 26208)

  • Bug in DataFrame.groupby() where passing a Grouper would return incorrect groups when using the .groups accessor (GH 26326)

  • Bug in GroupBy.agg() where incorrect results are returned for uint64 columns. (GH 26310)

  • Bug in Rolling.median() and Rolling.quantile() where MemoryError is raised with empty window (GH 26005)

  • Bug in Rolling.median() and Rolling.quantile() where incorrect results are returned with closed='left' and closed='neither' (GH 26005)

  • Improved Rolling, Window and ExponentialMovingWindow functions to exclude nuisance columns from results instead of raising errors and raise a DataError only if all columns are nuisance (GH 12537)

  • Bug in Rolling.max() and Rolling.min() where incorrect results are returned with an empty variable window (GH 26005)

  • Raise a helpful exception when an unsupported weighted window function is used as an argument of Window.aggregate() (GH 26597)


  • Bug in pandas.merge() adds a string of None, if None is assigned in suffixes instead of remain the column name as-is (GH 24782).

  • Bug in merge() when merging by index name would sometimes result in an incorrectly numbered index (missing index values are now assigned NA) (GH 24212, GH 25009)

  • to_records() now accepts dtypes to its column_dtypes parameter (GH 24895)

  • Bug in concat() where order of OrderedDict (and dict in Python 3.6+) is not respected, when passed in as objs argument (GH 21510)

  • Bug in pivot_table() where columns with NaN values are dropped even if dropna argument is False, when the aggfunc argument contains a list (GH 22159)

  • Bug in concat() where the resulting freq of two DatetimeIndex with the same freq would be dropped (GH 3232).

  • Bug in merge() where merging with equivalent Categorical dtypes was raising an error (GH 22501)

  • bug in DataFrame instantiating with a dict of iterators or generators (e.g. pd.DataFrame({'A': reversed(range(3))})) raised an error (GH 26349).

  • Bug in DataFrame instantiating with a range (e.g. pd.DataFrame(range(3))) raised an error (GH 26342).

  • Bug in DataFrame constructor when passing non-empty tuples would cause a segmentation fault (GH 25691)

  • Bug in Series.apply() failed when the series is a timezone aware DatetimeIndex (GH 25959)

  • Bug in pandas.cut() where large bins could incorrectly raise an error due to an integer overflow (GH 26045)

  • Bug in DataFrame.sort_index() where an error is thrown when a multi-indexed DataFrame is sorted on all levels with the initial level sorted last (GH 26053)

  • Bug in Series.nlargest() treats True as smaller than False (GH 26154)

  • Bug in DataFrame.pivot_table() with a IntervalIndex as pivot index would raise TypeError (GH 25814)

  • Bug in which DataFrame.from_dict() ignored order of OrderedDict when orient='index' (GH 8425).

  • Bug in DataFrame.transpose() where transposing a DataFrame with a timezone-aware datetime column would incorrectly raise ValueError (GH 26825)

  • Bug in pivot_table() when pivoting a timezone aware column as the values would remove timezone information (GH 14948)

  • Bug in merge_asof() when specifying multiple by columns where one is datetime64[ns, tz] dtype (GH 26649)


  • Significant speedup in SparseArray initialization that benefits most operations, fixing performance regression introduced in v0.20.0 (GH 24985)

  • Bug in SparseFrame constructor where passing None as the data would cause default_fill_value to be ignored (GH 16807)

  • Bug in SparseDataFrame when adding a column in which the length of values does not match length of index, AssertionError is raised instead of raising ValueError (GH 25484)

  • Introduce a better error message in Series.sparse.from_coo() so it returns a TypeError for inputs that are not coo matrices (GH 26554)

  • Bug in numpy.modf() on a SparseArray. Now a tuple of SparseArray is returned (GH 26946).

Build changes#

  • Fix install error with PyPy on macOS (GH 26536)


  • Bug in factorize() when passing an ExtensionArray with a custom na_sentinel (GH 25696).

  • Series.count() miscounts NA values in ExtensionArrays (GH 26835)

  • Added Series.__array_ufunc__ to better handle NumPy ufuncs applied to Series backed by extension arrays (GH 23293).

  • Keyword argument deep has been removed from ExtensionArray.copy() (GH 27083)


  • Removed unused C functions from vendored UltraJSON implementation (GH 26198)

  • Allow Index and RangeIndex to be passed to numpy min and max functions (GH 26125)

  • Use actual class name in repr of empty objects of a Series subclass (GH 27001).

  • Bug in DataFrame where passing an object array of timezone-aware datetime objects would incorrectly raise ValueError (GH 13287)


A total of 231 people contributed patches to this release. People with a “+” by their names contributed a patch for the first time.

  • 1_x7 +

  • Abdullah İhsan Seçer +

  • Adam Bull +

  • Adam Hooper

  • Albert Villanova del Moral

  • Alex Watt +

  • AlexTereshenkov +

  • Alexander Buchkovsky

  • Alexander Hendorf +

  • Alexander Nordin +

  • Alexander Ponomaroff

  • Alexandre Batisse +

  • Alexandre Decan +

  • Allen Downey +

  • Alyssa Fu Ward +

  • Andrew Gaspari +

  • Andrew Wood +

  • Antoine Viscardi +

  • Antonio Gutierrez +

  • Arno Veenstra +

  • ArtinSarraf

  • Batalex +

  • Baurzhan Muftakhidinov

  • Benjamin Rowell

  • Bharat Raghunathan +

  • Bhavani Ravi +

  • Big Head +

  • Brett Randall +

  • Bryan Cutler +

  • C John Klehm +

  • Caleb Braun +

  • Cecilia +

  • Chris Bertinato +

  • Chris Stadler +

  • Christian Haege +

  • Christian Hudon

  • Christopher Whelan

  • Chuanzhu Xu +

  • Clemens Brunner

  • Damian Kula +

  • Daniel Hrisca +

  • Daniel Luis Costa +

  • Daniel Saxton

  • DanielFEvans +

  • David Liu +

  • Deepyaman Datta +

  • Denis Belavin +

  • Devin Petersohn +

  • Diane Trout +

  • EdAbati +

  • Enrico Rotundo +

  • EternalLearner42 +

  • Evan +

  • Evan Livelo +

  • Fabian Rost +

  • Flavien Lambert +

  • Florian Rathgeber +

  • Frank Hoang +

  • Gaibo Zhang +

  • Gioia Ballin

  • Giuseppe Romagnuolo +

  • Gordon Blackadder +

  • Gregory Rome +

  • Guillaume Gay

  • HHest +

  • Hielke Walinga +

  • How Si Wei +

  • Hubert

  • Huize Wang +

  • Hyukjin Kwon +

  • Ian Dunn +

  • Inevitable-Marzipan +

  • Irv Lustig

  • JElfner +

  • Jacob Bundgaard +

  • James Cobon-Kerr +

  • Jan-Philip Gehrcke +

  • Jarrod Millman +

  • Jayanth Katuri +

  • Jeff Reback

  • Jeremy Schendel

  • Jiang Yue +

  • Joel Ostblom

  • Johan von Forstner +

  • Johnny Chiu +

  • Jonas +

  • Jonathon Vandezande +

  • Jop Vermeer +

  • Joris Van den Bossche

  • Josh

  • Josh Friedlander +

  • Justin Zheng

  • Kaiqi Dong

  • Kane +

  • Kapil Patel +

  • Kara de la Marck +

  • Katherine Surta +

  • Katrin Leinweber +

  • Kendall Masse

  • Kevin Sheppard

  • Kyle Kosic +

  • Lorenzo Stella +

  • Maarten Rietbergen +

  • Mak Sze Chun

  • Marc Garcia

  • Mateusz Woś

  • Matias Heikkilä

  • Mats Maiwald +

  • Matthew Roeschke

  • Max Bolingbroke +

  • Max Kovalovs +

  • Max van Deursen +

  • Michael

  • Michael Davis +

  • Michael P. Moran +

  • Mike Cramblett +

  • Min ho Kim +

  • Misha Veldhoen +

  • Mukul Ashwath Ram +

  • MusTheDataGuy +

  • Nanda H Krishna +

  • Nicholas Musolino

  • Noam Hershtig +

  • Noora Husseini +

  • Paul

  • Paul Reidy

  • Pauli Virtanen

  • Pav A +

  • Peter Leimbigler +

  • Philippe Ombredanne +

  • Pietro Battiston

  • Richard Eames +

  • Roman Yurchak

  • Ruijing Li

  • Ryan

  • Ryan Joyce +

  • Ryan Nazareth

  • Ryan Rehman +

  • Sakar Panta +

  • Samuel Sinayoko

  • Sandeep Pathak +

  • Sangwoong Yoon

  • Saurav Chakravorty

  • Scott Talbert +

  • Sergey Kopylov +

  • Shantanu Gontia +

  • Shivam Rana +

  • Shorokhov Sergey +

  • Simon Hawkins

  • Soyoun(Rose) Kim

  • Stephan Hoyer

  • Stephen Cowley +

  • Stephen Rauch

  • Sterling Paramore +

  • Steven +

  • Stijn Van Hoey

  • Sumanau Sareen +

  • Takuya N +

  • Tan Tran +

  • Tao He +

  • Tarbo Fukazawa

  • Terji Petersen +

  • Thein Oo

  • ThibTrip +

  • Thijs Damsma +

  • Thiviyan Thanapalasingam

  • Thomas A Caswell

  • Thomas Kluiters +

  • Tilen Kusterle +

  • Tim Gates +

  • Tim Hoffmann

  • Tim Swast

  • Tom Augspurger

  • Tom Neep +

  • Tomáš Chvátal +

  • Tyler Reddy

  • Vaibhav Vishal +

  • Vasily Litvinov +

  • Vibhu Agarwal +

  • Vikramjeet Das +

  • Vladislav +

  • Víctor Moron Tejero +

  • Wenhuan

  • Will Ayd +

  • William Ayd

  • Wouter De Coster +

  • Yoann Goular +

  • Zach Angell +

  • alimcmaster1

  • anmyachev +

  • chris-b1

  • danielplawrence +

  • endenis +

  • enisnazif +

  • ezcitron +

  • fjetter

  • froessler

  • gfyoung

  • gwrome +

  • h-vetinari

  • haison +

  • hannah-c +

  • heckeop +

  • iamshwin +

  • jamesoliverh +

  • jbrockmendel

  • jkovacevic +

  • killerontherun1 +

  • knuu +

  • kpapdac +

  • kpflugshaupt +

  • krsnik93 +

  • leerssej +

  • lrjball +

  • mazayo +

  • nathalier +

  • nrebena +

  • nullptr +

  • pilkibun +

  • pmaxey83 +

  • rbenes +

  • robbuckley

  • shawnbrown +

  • sudhir mohanraj +

  • tadeja +

  • tamuhey +

  • thatneat

  • topper-123

  • willweil +

  • yehia67 +

  • yhaque1213 +