pandas.DataFrame.tz_localize#

DataFrame.tz_localize(tz, axis=0, level=None, copy=_NoDefault.no_default, ambiguous='raise', nonexistent='raise')[source]#

Localize tz-naive index of a Series or DataFrame to target time zone.

This operation localizes the Index. To localize the values in a timezone-naive Series, use Series.dt.tz_localize().

Parameters:
tzstr or tzinfo or None

Time zone to localize. Passing None will remove the time zone information and preserve local time.

axis{0 or ‘index’, 1 or ‘columns’}, default 0

The axis to localize

levelint, str, default None

If axis ia a MultiIndex, localize a specific level. Otherwise must be None.

copybool, default False

Also make a copy of the underlying data.

Note

The copy keyword will change behavior in pandas 3.0. Copy-on-Write will be enabled by default, which means that all methods with a copy keyword will use a lazy copy mechanism to defer the copy and ignore the copy keyword. The copy keyword will be removed in a future version of pandas.

You can already get the future behavior and improvements through enabling copy on write pd.options.mode.copy_on_write = True

Deprecated since version 3.0.0.

ambiguous‘infer’, bool, bool-ndarray, ‘NaT’, default ‘raise’

When clocks moved backward due to DST, ambiguous times may arise. For example in Central European Time (UTC+01), when going from 03:00 DST to 02:00 non-DST, 02:30:00 local time occurs both at 00:30:00 UTC and at 01:30:00 UTC. In such a situation, the ambiguous parameter dictates how ambiguous times should be handled.

  • ‘infer’ will attempt to infer fall dst-transition hours based on order

  • bool (or bool-ndarray) where True signifies a DST time, False designates a non-DST time (note that this flag is only applicable for ambiguous times)

  • ‘NaT’ will return NaT where there are ambiguous times

  • ‘raise’ will raise an AmbiguousTimeError if there are ambiguous times.

nonexistentstr, default ‘raise’

A nonexistent time does not exist in a particular timezone where clocks moved forward due to DST. Valid values are:

  • ‘shift_forward’ will shift the nonexistent time forward to the closest existing time

  • ‘shift_backward’ will shift the nonexistent time backward to the closest existing time

  • ‘NaT’ will return NaT where there are nonexistent times

  • timedelta objects will shift nonexistent times by the timedelta

  • ‘raise’ will raise an NonExistentTimeError if there are nonexistent times.

Returns:
Series/DataFrame

Same type as the input.

Raises:
TypeError

If the TimeSeries is tz-aware and tz is not None.

Examples

Localize local times:

>>> s = pd.Series(
...     [1],
...     index=pd.DatetimeIndex(["2018-09-15 01:30:00"]),
... )
>>> s.tz_localize("CET")
2018-09-15 01:30:00+02:00    1
dtype: int64

Pass None to convert to tz-naive index and preserve local time:

>>> s = pd.Series([1], index=pd.DatetimeIndex(["2018-09-15 01:30:00+02:00"]))
>>> s.tz_localize(None)
2018-09-15 01:30:00    1
dtype: int64

Be careful with DST changes. When there is sequential data, pandas can infer the DST time:

>>> s = pd.Series(
...     range(7),
...     index=pd.DatetimeIndex(
...         [
...             "2018-10-28 01:30:00",
...             "2018-10-28 02:00:00",
...             "2018-10-28 02:30:00",
...             "2018-10-28 02:00:00",
...             "2018-10-28 02:30:00",
...             "2018-10-28 03:00:00",
...             "2018-10-28 03:30:00",
...         ]
...     ),
... )
>>> s.tz_localize("CET", ambiguous="infer")
2018-10-28 01:30:00+02:00    0
2018-10-28 02:00:00+02:00    1
2018-10-28 02:30:00+02:00    2
2018-10-28 02:00:00+01:00    3
2018-10-28 02:30:00+01:00    4
2018-10-28 03:00:00+01:00    5
2018-10-28 03:30:00+01:00    6
dtype: int64

In some cases, inferring the DST is impossible. In such cases, you can pass an ndarray to the ambiguous parameter to set the DST explicitly

>>> s = pd.Series(
...     range(3),
...     index=pd.DatetimeIndex(
...         [
...             "2018-10-28 01:20:00",
...             "2018-10-28 02:36:00",
...             "2018-10-28 03:46:00",
...         ]
...     ),
... )
>>> s.tz_localize("CET", ambiguous=np.array([True, True, False]))
2018-10-28 01:20:00+02:00    0
2018-10-28 02:36:00+02:00    1
2018-10-28 03:46:00+01:00    2
dtype: int64

If the DST transition causes nonexistent times, you can shift these dates forward or backward with a timedelta object or ‘shift_forward’ or ‘shift_backward’.

>>> s = pd.Series(
...     range(2),
...     index=pd.DatetimeIndex(["2015-03-29 02:30:00", "2015-03-29 03:30:00"]),
... )
>>> s.tz_localize("Europe/Warsaw", nonexistent="shift_forward")
2015-03-29 03:00:00+02:00    0
2015-03-29 03:30:00+02:00    1
dtype: int64
>>> s.tz_localize("Europe/Warsaw", nonexistent="shift_backward")
2015-03-29 01:59:59.999999999+01:00    0
2015-03-29 03:30:00+02:00              1
dtype: int64
>>> s.tz_localize("Europe/Warsaw", nonexistent=pd.Timedelta("1h"))
2015-03-29 03:30:00+02:00    0
2015-03-29 03:30:00+02:00    1
dtype: int64