pandas.DataFrame.to_markdown

DataFrame.to_markdown(buf=None, mode='wt', index=True, storage_options=None, **kwargs)[source]

Print DataFrame in Markdown-friendly format.

New in version 1.0.0.

Parameters
bufstr, Path or StringIO-like, optional, default None

Buffer to write to. If None, the output is returned as a string.

modestr, optional

Mode in which file is opened, “wt” by default.

indexbool, optional, default True

Add index (row) labels.

New in version 1.1.0.

storage_optionsdict, optional

Extra options that make sense for a particular storage connection, e.g. host, port, username, password, etc., if using a URL that will be parsed by fsspec, e.g., starting “s3://”, “gcs://”. An error will be raised if providing this argument with a local path or a file-like buffer. See the fsspec and backend storage implementation docs for the set of allowed keys and values.

New in version 1.2.0.

**kwargs

These parameters will be passed to tabulate.

Returns
str

DataFrame in Markdown-friendly format.

Notes

Requires the tabulate package.

Examples

>>> s = pd.Series(["elk", "pig", "dog", "quetzal"], name="animal")
>>> print(s.to_markdown())
|    | animal   |
|---:|:---------|
|  0 | elk      |
|  1 | pig      |
|  2 | dog      |
|  3 | quetzal  |

Output markdown with a tabulate option.

>>> print(s.to_markdown(tablefmt="grid"))
+----+----------+
|    | animal   |
+====+==========+
|  0 | elk      |
+----+----------+
|  1 | pig      |
+----+----------+
|  2 | dog      |
+----+----------+
|  3 | quetzal  |
+----+----------+